Nanocrystals, which occur quantum effects due to their extremely small diameter (of a few nanometers), are known as quantum dots. These quantum effects ensure that the nanocrystals possess extremely interesting optical, magnetic and electronic properties.
A distinction is drawn between two types of quantum dots: those of III-V semiconductors, consisting of elements of main groups III (boron, aluminum, gallium, indium) and V (nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic, ...) of the periodic table of the elements, and those from II-VI semiconductors, consisting of elements of main groups II (zinc, cadmium) and VI (oxygen, sulfur, selenium, tellurium).
Applications are given in electronics, optics, photonics and photovoltaics as well as biomedicine. There are already a few products based on quantum dots on the market, however, the quantum dots are not yet fully developed and effects must be carefully examined.
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