The element aluminum is found naturally in the earth's crust (about 8,1 g/kg soil), and various aluminum compounds are components of soils and rocks. For nanoscale Al2O3 particles, there are no measured values for actual environmental concentrations.


From the amount of Al2O3 particles employed in different consumer goods, concentrations of 0,0002 g/l in water and 0,01 g/kg predicted in soil were predicted by computer models [1]. In relation to the natural occurrence of aluminum in the soil and also to predicted environmental concentrations (PEC-value) for zinc oxide or titanium dioxide nanoparticles, these values are very low.



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