Studies on several cell culture systems have shown that superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (so-called SPION) are tolerated very well by the cells and hardly cause any negative effects.

 

Besides an increased production of inflammatory factors observed in some studies, the addition of iron oxide nanoparticles to macrophages does not exert any major negative impacts.

It was found that the toxicity of SPION can often be reduced considerably choosing a suitable coating polymer that covers the SPION surface. Coating polymers may consist of various different chemical compounds. The toxicity of the SPION is mainly determined by the chemical composition of the respective coatings.

 

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